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Orthognatic surgery:

It is a surgery to correct conditions of the jaw and face related to structure, growth, sleep apnea, TMJ disorders, malocclusion problems owing to skeletal disharmonies, or other orthodontic problems that cannot be easily treated with braces. Orthognathic surgery can also be referred to as corrective jaw surgery. Orthognathic surgery is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, plastic surgeon, or ENT in collaboration with an orthodontist. Careful coordination between the surgeon and orthodontist is essential to ensure that the teeth will fit correctly after the surgery.
People who may benefit from corrective jaw surgery include those with an improper bite resulting from misaligned teeth and/or jaws. In some cases, the upper and lower jaws may grow at different rates. Injuries and birth defects may also affect jaw alignment. While orthodontics can usually correct bite, or "occlusion," problems when only the teeth are misaligned, corrective jaw surgery may be necessary to correct misalignment of the jaws. Corrective jaw surgery may reposition all or part of the upper jaw, lower jaw and chin.

Some complications of the surgery include; bleeding, swelling, infection, nausea and vomiting. There could also be some numbness in the face due to nerve damage. The numbness may be either temporary, or, more rarely, permanent.

Keloids:

Keloids are an abnormal response to wound healing distinguished by an overproduction of collagen. A keloid is a type of scar which, is composed mainly of either type III (early) or type I (late) collagen. The granulation tissue (collagen type 3) get overgrow at the site of a healed skin injury which is then slowly replaced by collagen type 1. Keloids are rubbery lesions or shiny firm or fibrous nodules, and can vary from pink to dark brown in color. A keloid scar is benign and not contagious, but sometimes it cause severe itchiness and pain, accompanied by changes in texture. In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin. Keloids affect both sexes equally, but due to the greater frequency of ear piercing among women, incidence of keyloid ear in young female patients is higher than in young males. Keloids can develop in any place where an abrasion has occurred. They can be the result of pimples, insect bites, scratching, burns, body piercings, and skin trauma or post surgery. They are more common in some sites such as the central chest, the back and shoulders, the ear lobes, arms, and over the collar bone. They rarely develop on the face. Changes in the cellular signals that control growth and proliferation may be related to the process of keloid formation. For a person who has formed one keloid may have to avoid any elective surgery or piercing, especially in body areas prone to scarring to get rid of a keloid.
A hypertrophic scar is a skin condition in which excessive amounts of collagen gives rise to a raised scar, but not to the degree observed with keloids.

Keloids treatment:

The best keloid treatment is prevention in patients with known predisposition. Ear Keloid scarring can be nullified by avoiding ear piercing. Any skin problems in predisposed individuals should be treated as early as possible to minimize areas of inflammation. Keloid removal surgery by scalpel excision alone is not effective, as it cause recurrences. Keloid scar removal with excision should be combined with preoperative, intraoperative, or postoperative triamcinolone or interferon injections. Keloid surgical removal may cause larger keloid scars. Keloid on ear lobes is less likely to recur after scar removal provided proper precautions and post-op treatment is followed.

Intralesional corticosteroids are first-line treatment for most keloid scars. Keloid scarring treatment often uses injectable steroid medication into the scar tissue to reduce redness, itching and burning. In some cases, this will also shrink the scar.

Acne scars form at the site of an injury can be removed using laser. They are the visible reminders of injury and tissue repair. The laser light is absorbed by the water in your skin cells. The absorption in turn causes the instantaneous vaporization or destruction of the cell.

Laser surgical excision is the best alternative to conventional surgery for keloid removal. Using Co2 Laser the entire keloid mass is excised followed by kenacort injection .This should be followed by radiotherapy. Intralesional corticosteroids are first-line therapy for most Keloids. Gel sheeting with both hydrogel and silicone scar sheets have been used for the treatment of pain and itching in patients with established Keloids, as well as for the management of evolving Keloids and the prevention at the sites of new injuries. Cryosurgery is most useful in combination with other keloid treatments. Pulsed dye laser treatment can be beneficial for Keloid scarring.

The cost of scar removal treatments varies widely depending on the type of scar, the time and effort involved the number of treatments and the experience of the practice.
Cosmetic Surgery in India
Taking a major life decision to make changes to your body using cosmetic surgery is one that takes careful consideration and research.
Cosmetic Surgery Success Rate
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Cosmetic Surgery Cost in India
The cost of cosmetic surgery in India is much lower than what aesthetic surgeries cost in the United States, the United Kingdom and other First World countries. The costs of cosmetic surgery in India are lower because living in India is considerably inexpensive compared to living in the developed countries.
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